Higher Education in Poland - glossary

Higher education institutions - institutions operating under the provisions of the Act of the 27th July 2005 entitled "Law on Tertiary Education" (Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland 2005 No. 164, item 1365, as amended).

Academic studies - first-cycle programmes, second-cycle programmes or unified Master's studies conducted by higher education institutions authorized to conduct them.

Unified Master's studies (long-cycle programmes) - form of education available to candidates who have passed secondary school final examination and who after graduation obtain Master's qualifications.

First-cycle programmes (Bachelor and Bachelor of Applied Science) - form of education available to candidates who passed secondary school final examinations and who graduate obtaining first-cycle programme qualifications;

Second-cycle programmes (Second Degree Master Studies) - form of education available to candidates who completed at least first-cycle programmes which finish with obtaining by the students Master's qualifications;

Doctoral studies prepare for obtaining the doctor's degree (Ph.D.). They are conducted by an authorized unit of higher school, scientific units of the Polish Academy of Sciences, scientific units (other than PAN) or international scientific institute operating on the territory of the Republic of Poland created on the basis of separate provisions to which candidates are accepted who have already obtained qualifications during Master's studies and proceed to obtain third-cycle doctoral qualifications.

Post-graduate studies - a form of tertiary education designed for graduates of first and second degree studies conducted by a higher school, scientific units of the Polish Academy of Sciences, scientific units (other than PAN) or a medical center of post-graduate studies, ending with obtaining post-graduate qualifications.

Students of higher education institutions - people registered as students in higher education institutions, together with students who have completed the final year of studies without taking the diploma exam and who were on academic leave. The students of post-graduate and doctoral studies comprise separate groups. The data on first-year students concern only the students of long-cycle programmes (unified Master's studies) and first-cycle programmes.

Graduates of higher education institutions - people who had completed receiving the academic title. Graduates are listed according to their status in the previous (2012/2013) academic year. Graduates of master's studies (second-cycle and long-cycle programmes) are granted the title of Master of Arts/Sciences (depending on the field of education): Master of Economy, Master of Philology, etc. and graduates of medical faculties: general practitioner, dentist, veterinarian. Graduates of first-cycle programmes obtain (depending on the field of education) the professional title of Engineer (inżynier) or Bachelor (licencjat) of Arts/Sciences.

In the presentation of data concerning students and graduates according to groups and subgroups of fields of education the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED'97) was applied.

Foreigners of Polish origin - people who, regardless of their country of birth and knowledge of the Polish language, declare their Polish origin and show interest in Polish culture and the country of their origin.

Professional title - the title of Engineer (inżynier), Bachelor (licencjat) of Arts/Sciences, Master of Arts/Sciences or equivalent.

Scientific degrees - the degree of Doctor (Ph.D.), the degree of Habilitated Doctor in a specified field of science or field of science within a specified scientific or artistic discipline. Scientific degrees are conferred in the organizational units which are authorised to confer them. The data on scientific degrees awarded presented in the publication were provided by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Scientific title - the title of professor in a specified field of science or a specified field of art conferred by the President of the Republic of Poland.

Academic teachers - the personnel employed in higher education institutions hold the following posts: professor, associate professor, visiting professor, assistant professor, tutor, assistant lecturer, senior lecturer, lecturer, lector, instructor, and until 1990 and again since 2006 at the position of certified librarians and certified personnel dealing with scientific documentation. In the publication, full-time and part-time academic teachers were listed in terms of full time equivalent jobs. Teachers employed in more than one higher education institution were reported in each of the workplaces independently.

Doctoral scholarship - a scholarship which can be granted to students of doctoral studies who complete the programme of doctoral studies in a timely manner and demonstrate their involvement by 1) conducting educational classes within vocational practice or 2) implementing scientific research carried out by an organisational unit oi a higher education institution or a scientific unit.

Ph.D. scholarship - scholarship, which may be granted to a person preparing a Ph.D. dissertation, if: 1) the person was admitted into a Ph.D. program; 2) he/she obtained a positive opinion of his/her supervisor concerning the progress in writing the Ph.D. dissertation; 3) he/she is not employed elsewhere.

Habilitation scholarship - scholarship, which may be granted to a person preparing a habitation thesis, if: 1) he/she obtained a positive opinion of the council of the unit in which the thesis is going to be written concerning the progress in writing the habitation thesis; 2) he/she is not employed elsewhere.

Social allowance - monthly financial assistance granted to students or doctoral students, who are in difficult financial situation for a period of one semester or one academic year. Social allowance can be increased in the case of regular students who are in a difficult material situation in case of persons residing at student houses or in a facility other than student houses (also with an unemployed spouse or child) if the everyday commute from the place of residence to the institute of learning would make studying impossible or difficult

Subsistence allowance - singular financial aid tor a student or a doctoral student who tor various reasons was temporary in a difficult material situation. This allowance is not granted i the difficult material sttuation is not caused by a tortuitous event but by simply a difficult sttuation - in such a case one can apply tor social scholarship. The tortuitous events include: e.g. death or severe illness oi a iamily member, lie disasters (tire, tiood) or other untortunate circumstances as a result oi which the student tound himseff temporarily in a difficult material situation.

Vice-chancellor scholarship to the best students - a scholarship awarded to students who had a semester record oi a high average oi grades or had remarkable educational or artistic results, or achieved considerable success in sports while competing on an international or national level.

Scholarship to the best doctoral students - it is awarded by the vice-chancellor at the request of the Ph.D. student.

Scholarship for disabled persons - special allowance granted to a student or doctoral student due to disability certified by the appropriate institution. The scholarship is independent from the material situation.

Scholarship of the minister for outstanding achievements - can be granted to a student or student of doctoral studies in accordance with the decree of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 1 September 2011 on the detailed conditions and procedures for granting and disbursing to students the scholarship of the minister for outstanding achievements or the decree of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 14 September 2011 on the detailed conditions and procedures for granting and disbursing to student of doctoral studies the scholarship of the minister for outstanding achievements.


Division of higher education: - universities;
- technical universities;
- agricultural academies (including agricultural universities);
- academies of economics (including universities of economics);
- higher teacher education schools (including pedagogical universities)
- medical universities
- maritime universities;
- physical academies;
- theological academies


source: Central Statistical Office, Higher Education Institutions and their Finances in 2013

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